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Selected School-wide Positive Behavior Support Research & Related Literature
(For more research, please see www.pbis.org)
August, 2011


  • Bradshaw C., Koth C., Bevans K., Ialongo N., & Leaf P. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 462–473.

    Bradshaw, C. P., Debnam, K., Koth, C. W., & Leaf, P. (2009). Preliminary validation of the implementation phases inventory for assessing fidelity of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 145-160. doi:10.1177/1098300708319126

    Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133-148. doi:10.1177/1098300709334798

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    Carr, E.G., Horner, R.H., Marquis, J.G., Turnbull, A.P., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtee, M.L. et al. (1999). Positive behavior support as an approach for dealing with problem behavior in people with developmental disabilities: A research synthesis. American Association on Mental Retardation Monograph Series.

    Chapman, D. & Hofweber, C. (2000). Effective behavior support in British Columbia. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 235-237.

    Cheney, D., Flower, A., & Templeton, T. (2008). Applying response to intervention metrics in the social domain for students at risk of developing emotional or behavioral disorders. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 108–126.

    Cheney, D., Lynass, L., Flower, A., Waugh, M., Iwaszuk, W., Mielenz, C., & Hawken, L. (2010). The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A targeted, tier 2 intervention in the schoolwide positive behavior support model. Preventing School Failure, 54(3), 152–158. DOI: 10.1080/10459880903492742

    Colvin, G., & Fernandez, E. (2000). Sustaining effective behavior support systems in an elementary school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 251-253.

    Colvin, G. (2009). Managing noncompliance and defiance in the classroom: A road map for teachers, specialists, and behavior support teams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

    Coyne, M. D., Simonsen, B. M., & Faggella-Luby, M. (2008). Cooperating initiatives: Supporting behavioral and academic improvement through a systems approach. Teaching Exceptional Children, Special Issue: Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, 40, 54-59.

    Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.

    Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Bergstrom, M. K. (2007). A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 15-29. doi:10.1177/10983007070090010301

    Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York: Guilford Press.

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    Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K. J., Kincaid, D. K., & Strain, P. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(1), 9-22. doi:10.1177/1098300708330880

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    Fairbanks, S., Simonsen, B. M., & Sugai, G. (2008). Class-wide secondary and tertiary tier practices and supports. Teaching Exceptional Children, Special Issue: Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, 40, 44-52.

    Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2009). School-wide positive behavior support in high school: Early lessons learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 177-185. doi:10.1177/1098300708316257

    Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 150-161. doi:10.1177/1098300708316260

    Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Bounds, M., Dunlap, G., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide PBS: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 4-17.

    Freeman, R., Lohrmann, S., Irvin, L.K., Kincaid, D., Vossler, V., & Ferro, J. (2009). Systems change and the complementary roles of inservice and preservice training in school-wide positive behavior support. In G. Sugai, R. Horner, G. Dunlap, & W. Sailor (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support, (pp. 599-626). New York, NY: Springer.

    Freeman, R. L., Smith, C., & Tieghi-Benet, M. (2003). Promoting implementation success through the use of continuous systems-level assessment strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 66-70.

    Freeman, R., Smith, C., Zarcone, J., Kimbrough, P., Tieghi-Benet, M., & Wickham, D. (2005). Building a state-wide plan for embedding positive behavior support in human service organizations. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(2), 109-119.

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    George, H. P., & Kincaid, D. K. (2008). Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/1098300707311367

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    Hawken, L. S., Adolphson, S. L., Macleod, S., & Schumann, J. (2008). Secondary-tier interventions and supports. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 395-420). New York, NY: Springer.

    Horner, R.H., & Sugai, G., (in press). School-wide positive behavior support: An alternative approach to discipline in schools. In L. Bambara & L. Kern (Eds.) Positive Behavior Support. New York: Guilford Press.

    Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative (special issue). Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2(4), 231-233.

    Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2001). "Data" need not be a four-letter word: Using data to improve schoolwide discipline. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 20-22.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C.M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42, 1-14.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Horner, H. F. (2000). A school-wide approach to student discipline. The School Administrator, 2(57), 20-23.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Todd, A. W. (2001). Teaching school-wide behavioral expectations. Report on Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 1(4), 77-79.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A. W., & Esperanza, J. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 133-144. doi:10.1177/1098300709332067

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (1999-2000). Elements of behavior support plans: A technical brief. Exceptionality, 8(3), 205-215.

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T. (in press). School-wide positive behavior support: An alternative approach to discipline in schools. In L. Bambara & L. Kern (Eds.) Positive Behavior Support. New York: Guilford Press.

    Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J.B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 3-12.

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    Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P.E., Wang, W., Kincaid, D., Dunlap, D., & Strain, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of the Prevent–Teach–Reinforce (PTR) tertiary intervention for students with problem behaviors: Preliminary outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(4), 213-225. DOI: 10.1177/1063426609337389

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    Kaufman, J. S., Jaser, S. S., Vaughan, E. L., Reynolds, J. S., Di Donato, J., Bernard, S. N., & Hernandez-Brereton, M.(2010). Patterns in office referral data by grade, race/ethnicity, and gender. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(1), 44-54. doi:10.1177/1098300708329710

    Kimbrough Kidwell, P., Freeman, R., Smith, C., & Zarcone, J. (2004). Integrating online instruction with active mentoring to support professionals in applied settings. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 141-150.

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    Lane, K., Robertson, J., Bruhn, A. L., Driscoll, S. A., Wehby, J. H., & Elliott, S. N. (2009). Assessing social validity of school-wide positive behavior support plans: Evidence for the reliability and structure of the primary intervention rating scale. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 135-144.

    Lewis, T. J. (2001). Building infrastructure to enhance schoolwide systems of positive behavioral support: Essential features of technical assistance. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 10-12.

    Lewis, T. J., & Daniels, C. (2000). Rethinking school discipline through effective behavioral support. Reaching Today's Youth, 5, 43-47.

    Lewis, T. J. Garrison-Harrell, L. (1999). Effective behavior support: Designing setting specific interventions. Effective School Practices, 17, 38-46.

    Lewis, T. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Examining the efficacy of school-based consultation: Recommendations for improving outcomes. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 165-181.

    Lewis, T. J., & Newcomer, L., Kelk, M., & Powers, L. (2000). Preventing and addressing aggressive and violent behavior through individual systems of positive behavioral support. Reaching Today's Youth, 5, 37-41.

    Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive school-wide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.

    Lewis, T. J., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1998). Reducing problem behavior through a school-wide system of effective behavioral support: Investigation of a school-wide social skills training program and contextual interventions. School Psychology Review, 27, 446-459.

    Lewis-Palmer, T., Sugai, G., & Larson, S. (1999). Using data to guide decisions about program implementation and effectiveness. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 47-53.

    Lohrmann, S., Forman, S., Martin, S., & Palmieri, M. (2008). Understanding school personnel's resistance to adopting schoolwide positive behavior support at a universal level of intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 256-269. doi:10.1177/1098300708318963

    Lohrman-O'Rourke, S., Knoster, T., Sabatine, K., Smith, D., Horvath, B., & Llewellyn, G. (2000). School-wide application of PBS in the Bangor Area School District. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 238-240.

    Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., & Handler, M. W. (2001). Improving discipline practices in public schools: Description of a whole-school and district-wide model of behavior analysis consultation. The Behavior Analyst Today, 2(1), 18-26.

    Luiselli, J. K., Putnam, R. F., & Sunderland, M. (2002). Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 4(3), 182-188.

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    Mass-Galloway, R. L., Panyan, M. V., Smith, C. R., & Wessendorf, S. (2008). Systems change with school-wide positive behavior supports: Iowa's work in progress. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(2), 129-135. doi:10.1177/1098300707312545

    Mayer, R. G. (2002). Behavioral strategies to reduce school violence. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 83-100.

    Mayer, R. G. (1998). Constructive discipline for school personnel. Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 36-54.

    Mayer, G. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 467-478.

    Mayer, G. R., & Butterworth, T. (1979). A preventive approach to school violence and vandalism: An experimental study. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 57, 436-441.

    Mayer, G. R., Butterworth, T., Komoto, T., & Benoit, R. (1983). The influence of the school principal on the consultant's effectiveness. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 17, 274-279.

    Mayer, G. R., Butterworth, T., Nafpaktitis, M., & Suzer-Azaroff, B. (1983). Preventing school vandalism and improving discipline: A three year study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 355-369.

    Mayer, G. R., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1990). Interventions for vandalism. In G. Stoner, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems. National Association of School Psychologists Monograph. Washington, D.C.

    McIntosh, K., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., Braun, D. H., & Cochrane, K. L. (2008). Relationships between academics and problem behavior in the transition from middle school to high school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(4), 243-255. doi:10.1177/1098300708318961

    Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., & Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior management program to improve school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 448-479.

    Muscott, H. S., Mann, E. L., & LeBrun, M. R. (2008). Positive behavioral interventions and supports in New Hampshire. Effects of large-scale implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support on student discipline and academic achievement. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 190-205. doi:10.1177/1098300708316258

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    Nakasato, J. (2000). Data-based decision making in Hawaii's behavior support effort. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 247-251.

    Nelson, J. R. (1996). Designing schools to meet the needs of students who exhibit disruptive behavior. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 147-161.

    Nelson, J. R., Colvin, G., & Smith, D. J. (1996). The effects of setting clear standards on students' social behavior in common areas of the school. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, Summer/Fall, 10-17.

    Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62.

    Nelson, J. R., Martella, R., & Galand, B. (1998). The effects of teaching school expectations and establishing a consistent consequence on formal office disciplinary actions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6, 153-161.

    Nelson, J. R., Martella, R. & Marchand-Martella, N. (2002). Maximizing student learning: The effects of a comprehensive school-based program for preventing problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(3) 136-148.

    Nersesian, M., Todd, A., Lehmann, J., & Watson, J (2000). School-wide behavior support through district-level systems change. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 244-246.

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    Peshak George, H., Kincaid, D., & Pollard-Sage, J. (2008). Primary-tier interventions and supports. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp.375-394). New York, NY: Springer.

    Putnam, R. F., Handler, M. W., Ramirez-Platt, C. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2003). Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 583-589.

    Putnam, R. F., Luiselli, J. K., Handler, M. W., & Jefferson, G. L. (2003). Evaluating student discipline practices in a public school through behavioral assessment of office referrals. Behavior Modification, 27(4), 505-523.

    Putnam, R. F., Luiselli, J. K., & Jefferson, G. L. (2002). Expanding technical assistance consultation to public schools: District-wide evaluation of instructional and behavior support practices for students with developmental disabilities. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 113-128.

    Putnam, R. F., Luiselli, J. K, Sennett, K., & Malonson, J. (2002). Cost-efficacy analysis of out-of-district placements: An evaluative measure of behavior support intervention in public schools. Journal of Special Education, 15(1), 17-24

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    Ross, S.W., & Horner, R.H. (2009). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 747-759.

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    Sadler, C. (2000). Implementation of effective behavior support at the district level. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 241-243.

    Sadler, C., & Sugai, G. (2009). Effective behavior and instructional support: A district model for early identification and prevention of reading and behavior problems. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 35-46. doi:10.1177/1098300708322444

    Sailor, W., Scott, T. M., Nelson, C. M., Freeman, R., Smith, C., Britten, J., & McCart, A. (1999-2000). Using information technology to prepare personnel to implement functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral support. Exceptionalities, 8(3), 217-230.

    Scott, T. M., Anderson, C., Mancil, R., & Alter, P. (2008). Function-based supports for individual students in school settings. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 421-441). New York, NY: Springer.

    Scott, T. M., Alter, P. J., Rosenberg, R., & Borgmeier, C. (2010). Decision-making in secondary and tertiary interventions of school-wide systems of positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(4), 513-535.

    Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, 21-28.

    Scott, T. M., & Eber, L. (2003). Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 131-143.

    Scott, T. M., & Hunter, J. (2001). Initiative schoolwide support systems: An administrator's guide to the process. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 13-15.

    Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C. J., Nelson, C. M., & Jolivette, K. (2003). Ensuring student success through team-based functional behavioral assessment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 16-21.

    Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (1999). Using functional behavioral assessment to develop effective intervention plans: Practical classroom applications. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 242-251.

    Simonsen, B. M., Sugai, G., & Negron, M. (2008). School-wide positive behavior support: Primary systems and practices. Teaching Exceptional Children, Special Issue: Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, 40, 32-40.

    Skiba, R. J., & Peterson, R. L. (1999). The dark side of zero tolerance: Can punishment lead to safe schools? Phi Delta Kappan, 80, 372-382.

    Skiba, R. J., & Peterson, R. L. (2000). School discipline at a crossroads: From zero tolerance to early response. Exceptional Children, 66, 335-347.

    Smith, C., & Freeman, R. L. (2002). Using continuous system level assessment to build school capacity. American Journal of Evaluation, 23(3), 307-319.

    Smith, C., & Freeman, R. L. (2002). A model for evaluating school-based and school-linked programs while building local capacity and expertise. American Journal of Evaluation, 23(3), 307-319.

    Spaulding, S. A., Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., May, S. L., Emeldi, M., Tobin, T. J., & Sugai, G. (2010). Schoolwide social-behavioral climate, student problem behavior, and related administrative decisions: Empirical patterns from 1,510 schools nationwide. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 69-85. doi:10.1177/1098300708329011

    Sprague, J., Sugai, G., & Walker, H. (1999). Antisocial behavior in schools. In S. Watson & F. Gresham (Eds.), Child behavior therapy: Ecological considerations in assessment, treatment, and evaluation. (pp. 451-474). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    Sprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2001). Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on indicators of discipline and school safety. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 495-511.

    Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Trussell, R. P. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies: Comparisons among high- and low-risk elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 68-81. doi:10.1177/1098300708326597

    Sugai, G. (1996). Providing effective behavior support to all students: Procedures and processes. SAIL, 11(1), 1-4.

    Sugai, G. M. (1992). The design of instruction and the proactive management of social behaviors. Learning Disabilities Forum, 17(2), 20-23.

    Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 23-50.

    Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2001). Features of effective behavior support at the district level. Beyond Behavior, 11(1), 16-19.

    Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (1999). Discipline and behavioral support: Preferred processes and practices. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 10-22.

    Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (1994). Including students with severe behavior problems in general education settings: Assumptions, challenges, and solutions. In J. Marr, G. Sugai, & G. Tindal (Eds.). The Oregon Conference Monograph, 6, 102-20. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

    Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (1999-2000). Including the functional behavioral assessment technology in schools (invited special issue). Exceptionality, 8, 145-148.

    Sugai, G., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, R., Barrett, S., Lewis, T., Anderson, C., Bradley, R., Choi, J. H., Dunlap, G., Eber, L., George, H., Kincaid, D., McCart, A., Nelson, M., Newcomer, L., Putnam, R., Riffel, L., Rovins, M., Sailor, W., Simonsen, B. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Implementers’ blueprint and self-assessment. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
    http://pbis.org/pbis_resource_detail_page.aspx?Type=3&PBIS_ResourceID=216

    Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G. Hieneman, M., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C. M., Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., III, Wickham, D. Reuf, M., & Wilcox, B. (2000). Applying positive behavioral support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 2, 131-143.

    Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S. (1999-2000). Overview of the functional behavioral assessment process. Exceptionality, 8, 149-160.

    Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & Gresham, F. (in press). Behaviorally effective school environments. In M. R. Shinn, G. Stoner, & H. M. Walker (Eds), Interventions for academic and behavior problems: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists. Silver Spring, MD.

    Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., & McIntosh, K. (2008). Best practices in developing a broad scale system of support for school-wide positive behavior support. In A. Thomas & J. P. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

    Sugai, G., & Lewis, T. (1996). Preferred and promising practices for social skills instruction. Focus on Exceptional Children, 29(4), 1-16.

    Sugai, G., Sprague, J. R., Horner, R. H., & Walker, H. M. (2000). Preventing school violence: The use of office discipline referrals to assess and monitor school-wide discipline interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 94-101.

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    Taylor-Greene, S., & Kartub, D. (2000). Durable implementation of school-wide behavior support: The high five program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 233-234.

    Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., Swartz, J., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 99-112.

    Taylor-Greene, S., Brown, D., Nelson, L., Longton, J., Gassman, T., Cohen, J., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Hall, S. (1997). School-wide behavioral support: Starting the year off right. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(1), 99-112.

    Taylor-Greene, S. J., & Kartub, D. T. (2000). Durable implementation of school-wide behavior support: The high five program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 233-245.

    Tillery, A. D., Varjas, K., Meyers, J., & Collins, A. S. (2010). General education teachers' perceptions of behavior management and intervention strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 86-102. doi:10.1177/1098300708330879

    Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1996). Patterns in middle school discipline records. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4(2), 82-94.

    Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (2000). A guide to the creation and use of discipline referral graphs. NASSP Bulletin, 84(616), 106-117.

    Todd, A. W., Campbell, A. L., Meyer, G. G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). The effects of a targeted intervention to reduce problem behaviors: Elementary school implementation of check in-check out. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 46-55. doi:10.1177/1098300707311369

    Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J. R. (1999). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 23-37.

    Todd, A. W., Haugen, L., Anderson, K., & Spriggs, M. (2002). Teaching recess: Low cost efforts producing effective results. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(1).

    Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1999). Individualizing school-wide discipline for students with chronic problem behaviors: A team approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 72-82.

    Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J.R. (1999). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 23-37.

    Todd, A., Horner, R., Vanater, S., & Schneider, C. (1995). Working together to make change: An example of positive behavior support for a student with traumatic brain injury. Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 23-33.

    Turnbull, A., Edmonson, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., Guess, D., Lassen, S., McCart, A., Park, J., Riffel, L., Turnbull, R., & Warren, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children 68(3), 377-402.

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    Von Mizener, B. H., & Williams, R. L. (2009). The effects of student choices on academic performance. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 110-128. doi:10.1177/1098300708323372

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    Walker, B., Cheney, D., & Stage, S. (2009). The validity and reliability of the self-assessment and program review: Assessing school progress in schoolwide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 94-109. doi:10.1177/1098300708322445

    Walker, H., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in public school: Strategies and best practices. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole.

    Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 194-209.

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